About This Data The CSV file and charts on this site show a relative volume of directions requests per country/region or city compared to a baseline volume on January 13th, 2020. We define our day as midnight-to-midnight, Pacific time. Cities represent usage in greater metropolitan areas and are stably defined during this period. In many countries/regions and cities, relative volume has increased since January 13th, consistent with normal, seasonal usage of Apple Maps. Day of week effects are important to normalize as you use this data. Data that is sent from users’ devices to the Maps service is associated with random, rotating identifiers so Apple doesn’t have a profile of your movements and searches. Apple Maps has no demographic information about our users, so we can’t make any statements about the representativeness of our usage against the overall population.
Observations
The observations listed in this subsection are also placed under the relevant statistics in the following sections and indicated with “Observation”.
The directions request volumes reference date for normalization is 2020-01-13 : all the values in that column are 100.
From the community clusters of the nearest neighbor graphs (derived from the time series of the normalized driving directions requests volume) we see that countries and cities are clustered in expected ways. For example, in the community graph plot corresponding to “{city, driving}” the cities Oslo, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm, and Zurich are placed in the same cluster. In the graphs corresponding to “{city, transit}” and “{city, walking}” the Japanese cities Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, and Fukuoka are clustered together.
In the time series plots the Sundays are indicated with orange dashed lines. We can see that from Monday to Thursday people are more familiar with their trips than say on Fridays and Saturdays. We can also see that on Sundays people (on average) are more familiar with their trips or simply travel less.
Apple mobile data was provided in this WWW page: https://www.apple.com/covid19/mobility , [APPL1]. (The data has to be download from that web page – there is an “agreement to terms”, etc.)
We can visualize the data using heat-map plots. Here we use the package “HeatmapPlot.m”, [AAp2].
Remark: Using the contingency matrices prepared for the heat-map plots we can do further analysis, like, finding correlations or nearest neighbors. (See below.)
Observation: From the community clusters of the nearest neighbor graphs (derived from the time series of the normalized driving directions requests volume) we see that countries and cities are clustered in expected ways. For example in the community graph plot corresponding to “{city, driving}” the cities Oslo, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm, and Zurich are placed in the same cluster. In the graphs corresponding to “{city, transit}” and “{city, walking}” the Japanese cities Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, and Fukuoka are clustered together.
Time series analysis
Time series
In this section for each date we sum all cases over the region-transportation pairs, make a time series, and plot them.
Remark: In the plots the Sundays are indicated with orange dashed lines.
Observation: In the time series plots the Sundays are indicated with orange dashed lines. We can see that from Monday to Thursday people are more familiar with their trips than say on Fridays and Saturdays. We can also see that on Sundays people (on average) are more familiar with their trips or simply travel less.
“Forecast”
He we do “forecast” for code-workflow demonstration purposes – the forecasts should not be taken seriously.
(Note that mind-map’s PDF has hyperlinks. Also, see the folder Presentation-aids. )
Approximately 70% of the presentation was based on an R-programmed software monad for epidemiology compartmental models, ECMMon-R, [AAr2]. For the rest were used frameworks, simulations, and graphics made with Mathematica, [AAr1], and Wolfram System Modeler .
The presentation was given online (because of COVID-19) using Zoom. 190 people registered. Nearly 70 showed up (and maybe 60 stayed throughout.)
“SEI2HR” stands for “Susceptible, Exposed, Infected two, Hospitalized, Recovered” (populations.) “Econ” stands for “Economic”.
In this notebook we also deal with both quarantine scenarios and medical supplies scenarios. In the notebook [AA4] we deal with quarantine scenarios over a simpler model, SEI2HR.
Remark: We consider the contagious disease propagation models as instances of the more general System Dynamics (SD) models. We use SD terminology in this notebook.
The models
SEI2R
The model SEI2R is introduced and explained in the notebook [AA2]. SEI2R differs from the classical SEIR model, [Wk1, HH1], with the following elements:
Two separate infected populations: one is “severely symptomatic”, the other is “normally symptomatic”
The monetary equivalent of lost productivity due to infected or died people is tracked
SEI2HR
For the formulation of SEI2HR we use a system of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE’s). The package [AAp1] allows the use of a formulation that has just Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE’s).
Here are the unique features of SEI2HR:
People stocks
There are two types of infected populations: normally symptomatic and severely symptomatic.
There is a hospitalized population.
There is a deceased from infection population.
Hospital beds
Hospital beds are a limited resource that determines the number of hospitalized people.
Only severely symptomatic people are hospitalized according to the available hospital beds.
The hospital beds stock is not assumed constant, it has its own change rate.
Money stocks
The money from lost productivity is tracked.
The money for hospital services is tracked.
SEI2HR-Econ
SEI2HR-Econ adds the following features to SEI2HR:
Medical supplies
Medical supplies production is part of the model.
Medical supplies delivery is part of the model..
Medical supplies accumulation at hospitals is taken into account.
Medical supplies demand tracking.
Hospitalization
Severely symptomatic people are hospitalized according to two limited resources: hospital beds and medical supplies.
Money stocks
Money for medical supplies production is tracked.
SEI2HR-Econ’s place a development plan
This graph shows the “big picture” of the model development plan undertaken in [AAr1] and SEI2HR (discussed in this notebook) is in that graph:
Notebook structure
The rest of notebook has the following sequence of sections:
Package load section
SEI2HR-Econ structure in comparison of SEI2HR
Explanations of the equations of SEI2HR-Econ
Quarantine scenario modeling preparation
Medical supplies production and delivery scenario modeling preparation
Parameters and initial conditions setup
Populations, hospital beds, quarantine scenarios, medical supplies scenarios
Simulation solutions
Interactive interface
Sensitivity analysis
Load packages
The epidemiological models framework used in this notebook is implemented with the packages [AAp1-AAp4, AA3]; many of the plot functions are from the package [AAp5].
In this section we provide rationale for the equations of SEI2HR-Econ.
The equations for Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Recovered populations of SEI2R are “standard” and explanations about them are found in [WK1, HH1]. For SEI2HR those equations change because of the stocks Hospitalized Population and Hospital Beds. For SEI2HR-Econ the SEI2HR equations change because of the stocks Medical Supplies, Medical Supplies Demand, and Hospital Medical Supplies.
The equations time unit is one day. The time horizon is one year. Since we target COVID-19, [Wk2, AA1], we do not consider births.
Remark: For convenient reading the equations in this section have tooltips for the involved stocks and rates.
Verbalization description of the model
We start with one infected (normally symptomatic) person, the rest of the people are susceptible. The infected people meet other people directly or get in contact with them indirectly. (Say, susceptible people touch things touched by infected.) For each susceptible person there is a probability to get the decease. The decease has an incubation period: before becoming infected the susceptible are (merely) exposed. The infected recover after a certain average infection period or die. A certain fraction of the infected become severely symptomatic. The severely symptomatic infected are hospitalized if there are enough hospital beds and enough medical supplies. The hospitalized severely infected have different death rate than the non-hospitalized ones. The number of hospital beds might change: hospitals are extended, new hospitals are build, or there are not enough medical personnel or supplies.
The different types of populations (infected, hospitalized, recovered, etc.) have their own consumption rates of medical supplies. The medical supplies are produced with a certain rate (units per day) and delivered after a certain delay period. The hospitals have their own storage for medical supplies. Medical supplies are delivered to the hospitals only, non-hospitalized people go to the medical supplies producer to buy supplies. The hospitals have precedence for the medical supplies: if the medical supplies are not enough for everyone, the hospital needs are covered first (as much as possible.)
The medical supplies producer has a certain storage capacity (for supplies.) The medical supplies delivery vehicles have a certain – generally speaking, smaller – capacity. The hospitals have a certain capacity to store medical supplies. It is assumed that both producer and hospitals have initial stocks of medical supplies. (Following a certain normal, general preparedness protocol.)
The combined demand from all populations for medical supplies is tracked (accumulated.) The deaths from infection are tracked (accumulated.) Money for medical supplies production, money for hospital services, and money from lost productivity are tracked (accumulated.)
The equations below give mathematical interpretation of the model description above.
Code for the equations
Each equation in this section are derived with code like this:
and then the output cell is edited to be “DisplayFormula” and have CellLabel value corresponding to the stock of interest.
The infected and hospitalized populations
SEI2HR has two types of infected populations: a normally symptomatic one and a severely symptomatic one. A major assumption for SEI2HR is that only the severely symptomatic people are hospitalized. (That assumption is also reflected in the diagram in the introduction.)
Each of those three populations have their own contact rates and mortality rates.
Here are the contact rates from the SEI2HR-Econ dictionary
Remark: Below with “Infected Population” we mean both stocks Infected Normally Symptomatic Population (INSP) and Infected Severely Symptomatic Population (ISSP).
Total Population
In this notebook we consider a DAE’s formulation of SEI2HR-Econ. The stock Total Population has the following (obvious) algebraic equation:
Note that with Max we specified that the total population cannot be less than .
Remark: As mentioned in the introduction, the package [AAp1] allows for the use of non-algebraic formulation, without an equation for TP.
Susceptible Population
The stock Susceptible Population (SP) is decreased by (1) infections derived from stocks Infected Populations and Hospitalized Population (HP), and (2) morality cases derived with the typical mortality rate.
Because we hospitalize the severely infected people only instead of the term
we have the terms
The first term is for the infections derived from the hospitalized population. The second term for the infections derived from people who are infected severely symptomatic and not hospitalized.
Births term
Note that we do not consider in this notebook births, but the births term can be included in SP’s equation:
The births rate is the same as the death rate, but it can be programmatically changed. (See [AAp2].)
Exposed Population
The stock Exposed Population (EP) is increased by (1) infections derived from the stocks Infected Populations and Hospitalized Population, and (2) mortality cases derived with the typical mortality rate. EP is decreased by (1) the people who after a certain average incubation period (aincp) become ill, and (2) mortality cases derived with the typical mortality rate.
Infected Normally Symptomatic Population
INSP is increased by a fraction of the people who have been exposed. That fraction is derived with the parameter severely symptomatic population fraction (sspf). INSP is decreased by (1) the people who recover after a certain average infection period (aip), and (2) the normally symptomatic people who die from the disease.
Infected Severely Symptomatic Population
ISSP is increased by a fraction of the people who have been exposed. That fraction is corresponds to the parameter severely symptomatic population fraction (sspf). ISSP is decreased by (1) the people who recover after a certain average infection period (aip), (2) the hospitalized severely symptomatic people who die from the disease, and (3) the non-hospitalized severely symptomatic people who die from the disease.
Note that we do not assume that severely symptomatic people recover faster if they are hospitalized, only that they have a different death rate.
Hospitalized Population
The amount of people that can be hospitalized is determined by the available Hospital Beds (HB) – the stock Hospitalized Population (HP) is subject to a resource limitation by the stock HB.
The equation of the stock HP can be easily understood from the following dynamics description points:
If the number of hospitalized people is less that the number of hospital beds we hospitalize the new ISSP people.
The Available Hospital Beds (AHB) are determined by the minimum of (i) the non-occupied hospital beds, and (ii) the hospital medical supplies divided by the ISSP consumption rate.
If the new ISSP people are more than AHB the hospital takes as many as AHB.
Hospitalized people have the same average infection period (aip).
Hospitalized (severely symptomatic) people have their own mortality rate.
Here is the HP equation:
Note that although we know that in a given day some hospital beds are going to be freed they are not considered in the hospitalization plans for that day. Similarly, we know that new medical supplies are coming but we do not include them into AHB.
Recovered Population
The stock Recovered Population (RP) is increased by the recovered infected people and decreased by mortality cases derived with the typical mortality rate.
Deceased Infected Population
The stock Deceased Infected Population (DIP) accumulates the deaths of the people who are infected. Note that we utilize the different death rates for HP and ISSP.
Hospital Beds
The stock Hospital Beds (HB) can change with a rate that reflects the number of hospital beds change rate (nhbcr) per day. Generally speaking, using nhbcr we can capture scenarios, like, extending hospitals, building new hospitals, recruitment of new medical personnel, loss of medical personnel (due to infections.)
Hospital Medical Supplies
The Hospital Medical Supplies (HMS) are decreased according to the medical supplies consumption rate (mscr) of HP and increased by a Medical Supplies (MS) delivery term (to be described next.)
The MS delivery term is build with the following assumptions / postulates:
Every day the hospital attempts to order MS that correspond to HB multiplied by mscr.
The hospital has limited capacity of MS storage, .
The MS producer has limited capacity for delivery, .
The hospital demand for MS has precedence over the demands for the non-hospitalized populations.
Hence, if the MS producer has less stock of MS than the demand of the hospital then MS producer’s whole amount of MS goes to the hospital.
The supplies are delivered with some delay period: the medical supplies delivery period (msdp).
Here is the MS delivery term:
Here is the corresponding HMS equation:
Medical Supplies
The equation of the Medical Supplies (MS) stock is based on the following assumptions / postulates:
The non-hospitalized people go to the MS producer to buy supplies. (I.e. MS delivery is to the hospital only.)
The MS producer vehicles have certain capacity, .
The MS producer has a certain storage capacity (for MS stock.)
Each of the populations INSP, ISSP, and HP has its own specific medical supplies consumption rate (mscr). EP, RP, and TP have the same mscr.
The hospital has precedence in its MS order. I.e. the demand from the hospital is satisfied first, and then the demand of the rest of the populations.
Here is the MS delivery term described in the previous section:
Here is the MS formula with the MS delivery term replaced with “Dlvr”:
We can see from that equation that MS is increased by medical supplies production rate (mspr) with measuring dimension number of units per day. The production is restricted by the storage capacity, :
(*Min[mspr[HB], -MS[t] + \[Kappa][MS]]*)
MS is decreased by the MS delivery term and the demand from the non-hospitalized populations. Because the hospital has precedence, we use this term form in the equation:
(*Min[-Dlvr + MS[t], "non-hospital demand"]*)
Here is the full MS equation:
Medical Supplies Demand
The stock Medical Supplies Demand (MSD) simply accumulates the MS demand derived from population stocks and their corresponding mscr:
Money for Hospital Services
The stock Money for Hospital Services (MHS) simply tracks expenses for hospitalized people. The parameter hospital services cost rate (hscr) with unit money per bed per day simply multiplies HP.
Money from Lost Productivity
The stock Money from Lost Productivity (MLP) simply tracks the work non-availability of the infected and died from infection people. The parameter lost productivity cost rate (lpcr) with unit money per person per day multiplies the total count of the infected and dead from infection.
Quarantine scenarios
In order to model quarantine scenarios we use piecewise constant functions for the contact rates and .
Remark: Other functions can be used, like, functions derived through some statistical fitting.
Remark: We use the code in this section to do the computations in the section “Sensitivity Analysis”.
Interactive interface
Using the interface in this section we can interactively see the effects of changing parameters. (This interface is programmed without using parametrized NDSolve solutions in order to be have code that corresponds to the interface implementations in [AAr2].)
When making and using this kind of dynamics models it is important to see how the solutions react to changes of different parameters. For example, we should try to find answers to questions like “What ranges of which parameters bring dramatic changes into important stocks?”
Sensitivity Analysis (SA) is used to determine how sensitive is a SD model to changes of the parameters and to changes of model’s equations, [BC1]. More specifically, parameter sensitivity, which we apply below, allows us to see the changes of stocks dynamic behaviour for different sequences (and combinations) of parameter values.
Remark: This section to mirrors to a point the section with same name in [AA4], except in this notebook we are more interested in medical supplies related SA because quarantine related SA is done in [AA4].
Remark: SA shown below should be done for other stocks and rates. In order to keep this exposition short we focus on ISSP, DIP, and HP. Also, it is interesting to think in terms of “3D parameter sensitivity plots.” We also do such plots.
Evaluations by Area under the curve
For certain stocks we might be not just interested in their evolution in time but also in their cumulative values. I.e. we are interested in the so called Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric for those stocks.
There are three ways to calculate AUC for stocks of interest:
Add aggregation equations in the system of ODE’s. (Similar to the stock DIP in SEI2HR.)
For example, in order to compute AUC for ISSP we can add to SEI2HR the equation:
(*aucISSP'[t] = ISSP[t]*)
- More details for such equation addition are given in [AA2].
Apply NIntegrate over stocks solution functions.
Apply Trapezoidal rule to stock solution function values over a certain time grid.
Below we use 1 and 3.
Variation of medical supplies delivery period
Here we calculate the solutions for a certain combination of capacities and rates:
In order to demonstrate the effect of medical supplies production rate (mspr) it is beneficial to eliminate the hospital beds availability restriction – we assume that we have enough hospital beds for all infected severely symptomatic people.
Here we calculate the solutions for a certain combination of capacities and rates:
[HH1] Herbert W. Hethcote (2000). “The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases”. SIAM Review. 42 (4): 599–653. Bibcode:2000SIAMR..42..599H. doi:10.1137/s0036144500371907.
“SEI2HR” stands for “Susceptible, Exposed, Infected two, Hospitalized, Recovered” (populations.)
In this notebook we also deal with quarantine scenarios.
Remark: We consider the contagious disease propagation models as instances of the more general System Dynamics (SD) models. We use SD terminology in this notebook.
The models
SEI2R
The model SEI2R are introduced and explained in the notebook [AA2]. SEI2R differs from the classical SEIR model , [Wk1, HH1], with the following elements:
Two separate infected populations: one is “severely symptomatic”, the other is “normally symptomatic”
The monetary equivalent of lost productivity due to infected or died people is tracked.
SEI2HR
For the formulation of SEI2HR we use a system of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE’s). The package [AAp1] allows the use of a formulation that has just Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE’s).
Here are the unique features of SEI2HR:
People stocks
Two types of infected populations: normally symptomatic and severely symptomatic
Hospitalized population
Deceased from infection population
Hospital beds
Hospital beds are a limited resource that determines the number of hospitalized people
Only severely symptomatic people are hospitalized according to the available hospital beds
The hospital beds stock is not assumed constant, it has its own change rate.
Money stocks
The money from lost productivity are tracked
The money for hospital services are tracked
SEI2HR’s place a development plan
This graph shows the “big picture” of the model development plan undertaken in [AAr1] and SEI2HR (discussed in this notebook) is in that graph:
Notebook structure
The rest of notebook has the following sequence of sections:
Package load section
SEI2HR structure in comparison of SEI2R
Explanations of the equations of SEI2HR
Quarantine scenario modeling preparation
Parameters and initial conditions setup
Populations, hospital beds, quarantine scenarios
Parametric simulation solution
Interactive interface
Sensitivity analysis
Load packages
The epidemiological models framework used in this notebook is implemented with the packages [AAp1, AAp2, AA3]; many of the plot functions are from the package [AAp4].
In this section we provide rationale of the model equations of SEI2HR.
The equations for Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Recovered populations of SEI2R are “standard” and explanations about them are found in [WK1, HH1]. For SEI2HR those equations change because of the stocks Hospitalized Population and Hospital Beds.
The equations time unit is one day. The time horizon is one year. Since we target COVID-19, [Wk2, AA1], we do not consider births.
Remark: For convenient reading the equations in this section have tooltips for the involved stocks and rates.
Verbalization description of the model
We start with one infected (normally symptomatic) person, the rest of the people are susceptible. The infected people meet other people directly or get in contact with them indirectly. (Say, susceptible people touch things touched by infected.) For each susceptible person there is a probability to get the decease. The decease has an incubation period: before becoming infected the susceptible are (merely) exposed. The infected recover after a certain average infection period or die. A certain fraction of the infected become severely symptomatic. If there are enough hospital beds the severely symptomatic infected are hospitalized. The hospitalized severely infected have different death rate than the non-hospitalized ones. The number of hospital beds might change: hospitals are extended, new hospitals are build, or there are not enough medical personnel or supplies. The deaths from infection are tracked (accumulated.) Money for hospital services and money from lost productivity are tracked (accumulated.)
The equations below give mathematical interpretation of the model description above.
Code for the equations
Each equation in this section are derived with code like this:
and then the output cell is edited to be “DisplayFormula” and have CellLabel value corresponding to the stock of interest.
The infected and hospitalized populations
SEI2HR has two types of infected populations: a normally symptomatic one and a severely symptomatic one. A major assumption for SEI2HR is that only the severely symptomatic people are hospitalized. (That assumption is also reflected in the diagram in the introduction.)
Each of those three populations have their own contact rates and mortality rates.
Here are the contact rates from the SEI2HR dictionary
Remark: Below with “Infected Population” we mean both stocks Infected Normally Symptomatic Population (INSP) and Infected Severely Symptomatic Population (ISSP).
Total Population
In this notebook we consider a DAE’s formulation of SEI2HR. The stock Total Population has the following (obvious) algebraic equation:
Note that with Max we specified that the total population cannot be less than .
Remark: As mentioned in the introduction, the package [AAp1] allows for the use of non-algebraic formulation, without an equation for TP.
Susceptible Population
The stock Susceptible Population (SP) is decreased by (1) infections derived from stocks Infected Populations and Hospitalized Population (HP), and (2) morality cases derived with the typical mortality rate.
Because we hospitalize the severely infected people only instead of the term
we have the terms
The first term is for the infections derived from the hospitalized population. The second term for the infections derived from people who are infected severely symptomatic and not hospitalized.
Births term
Note that we do not consider in this notebook births, but the births term can be included in SP’s equation:
The births rate is the same as the death rate, but it can be programmatically changed. (See [AAp2].)
Exposed Population
The stock Exposed Population (EP) is increased by (1) infections derived from the stocks Infected Populations and Hospitalized Population, and (2) mortality cases derived with the typical mortality rate. EP is decreased by (1) the people who after a certain average incubation period (aincp) become ill, and (2) mortality cases derived with the typical mortality rate.
Infected Normally Symptomatic Population
INSP is increased by a fraction of the people who have been exposed. That fraction is derived with the parameter severely symptomatic population fraction (sspf). INSP is decreased by (1) the people who recover after a certain average infection period (aip), and (2) the normally symptomatic people who die from the disease.
Infected Severely Symptomatic Population
ISSP is increased by a fraction of the people who have been exposed. That fraction is corresponds to the parameter severely symptomatic population fraction (sspf). ISSP is decreased by (1) the people who recover after a certain average infection period (aip), (2) the hospitalized severely symptomatic people who die from the disease, and (3) the non-hospitalized severely symptomatic people who die from the disease.
Note that we do not assume that severely symptomatic people recover faster if they are hospitalized, only that they have a different death rate.
Hospitalized Population
The amount of people that can be hospitalized is determined by the available Hospital Beds (HB) – the stock Hospitalized Population (HP) is subject to a resource limitation by the stock HB.
The equation of the stock HP can be easily understood from the following dynamics description points:
If the number of hospitalized people is less that the number of hospital beds we hospitalize the new ISSP people.
If the new ISSP people are more than the Available Hospital Beds (AHB) we take as many as AHB.
Hospitalized people have the same average infection period (aip).
Hospitalized (severely symptomatic) people have their own mortality rate.
Note that although we know that in a given day some hospital beds are going to be freed they are not considered in the hospitalization plans for that day.
Recovered Population
The stock Recovered Population (RP) is increased by the recovered infected people and decreased by mortality cases derived with the typical mortality rate.
Deceased Infected Population
The stock Deceased Infected Population (DIP) accumulates the deaths of the people who are infected. Note that we utilize the different death rates for HP and ISSP.
Hospital Beds
The stock Hospital Beds (HB) can change with a rate that reflects the number of hospital beds change rate (nhbcr) per day. Generally speaking, using nhbcr we can capture scenarios, like, extending hospitals, building new hospitals, recruitment of new medical personnel, loss of medical personnel (due to infections.)
Money for Hospital Services
The stock Money for Hospital Services (MHS) simply tracks expenses for hospitalized people. The parameter hospital services cost rate (hscr) with unit money per bed per day simply multiplies HP.
Money from Lost Productivity
The stock Money from Lost Productivity (MLP) simply tracks the work non-availability of the infected and died from infection people. The parameter lost productivity cost rate (lpcr) with unit money per person per day multiplies the total count of the infected and dead from infection.
Quarantine scenarios
In order to model quarantine scenarios we use piecewise constant functions for the contact rates and .
Remark: Other functions can be used, like, functions derived through some statistical fitting.
When making and using this kind of dynamics models it is important to see how the solutions react to changes of different parameters. For example, we should try to find answers to questions like “What ranges of which parameters bring dramatic changes into important stocks?”
Sensitivity analysis is used to determine how sensitive is a SD model to changes of the parameters and to changes of model’s equations, [BC1]. More specifically, parameter sensitivity, which we apply below, allows us to see the changes of stocks dynamic behaviour for different sequences (and combinations) of parameter values.
Remark: The sensitivity analysis shown below should be done for other stocks and rates. In order to keep this exposition short we focus on ISSP, DIP, and HP.
It is interesting to think in terms of “3D parameter sensitivity plots.” We also do such plots.
Evaluations by Area under the curve
For certain stocks we might be not just interested in their evolution in time but also in their cumulative values. I.e. we are interested in the so called Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric for those stocks.
There are three ways to calculate AUC for stocks of interest:
Add aggregation equations in the system of ODE’s. (Similar to the stock DIP in SEI2HR.)
For example, in order to compute AUC for ISSP we can add to SEI2HR the equation:
(*aucISSP'[t] = ISSP[t]*)
- More details for such equation addition are given in [AA2].
Apply NIntegrate over stocks solution functions.
Apply Trapezoidal rule to stock solution function values over a certain time grid.
Below we use 1 and 3.
Remark: The AUC measure for a stock is indicated with the prefix “∫”. For example AUC for ISSP is marked with “∫ISSP”.
Ranges
Below we use the following sets of quarantine starts and quarantine durations.
[HH1] Herbert W. Hethcote (2000). “The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases”. SIAM Review. 42 (4): 599–653. Bibcode:2000SIAMR..42..599H. doi:10.1137/s0036144500371907.